Fuel oil (English: Mazut) is one of the petroleum hydrocarbons that is obtained in the refining stages of crude oil after naphtha and gasoline and kerosene and because it is black, it is also called black oil. It is the cheapest fuel for stoves, baths and ovens in bakeries, diesel engines and some power plants.


Fuel oil or mazut is a type of fuel oil that has low quality and high viscosity and is used in thermal power plants and similar cases. In Europe and the United States, the fuel oil composition is broken down into diesel.

In the past, fuel oil was used to heat homes in the former Soviet Union and the Far East because they did not have the equipment to convert fuel oil to other petrochemical products. In Western countries, furnaces that use fuel oil are also called waste incinerators.

Furnace oil is called heavy oil, offshore oil or fuel oil. This fuel is obtained by cutting the crude oil distillation tower as a distillation tower product or the rest of the distillation tower. In general, furnace oil is any liquid fuel used in boilers or furnaces to generate heat or to be used in engines to generate power, except for fuels whose flash point is 42 ° C and fuels that are burned in wool or linen burners. Petroleum gas is made from long-chain hydrocarbons, especially alkanes, cycloalkanes and aromatics.

The word gas fuel is also used more strictly for heavy industrial fuels derived from crude oil and heavier than naphtha and gasoline. Smaller molecules such as propane, naphtha and gasoline are used for cars. Jet fuel, which has a relatively low boiling point, is obtained and separated in the early stages of the distillation tower. Heavy petroleum products such as diesel fuel and lubricating oils have much less volatility and are separated from the distillation tower at a slower rate, while the bunker fuel is just below the barrels. It is used for asphalting roads and insulating roofs.

Types of fuel oil

Mazut 180 and 230

These products are heavier cuts than gas oil. Their constituents are mainly heavy hydrocarbons contained in crude oil distillation residues, which are viscosity-adjusted using light oil cuts and used as heavy fuel.

230180Viscosity kinematic @ 50 ° C max
15.05.0Pour point (max) ° C
6363Flash point (min) ° C
3.03.0SulphurTotal (max) % mass
1313Carbon Residue Conradson (max) % mass
0.050.05Ash (max) % mass
0.50.5Water & sediment (max) % vol
42.242.2Colorific value higher (min) MJ/kg

As a fuel in fixed and mobile diesels and industries that burners designed for their combustion system to be able to use this product.

Mazut 280 and 380

  • Fuel oil structure
  • These heavy oil cutting products are the result of the remnants of distillation towers, which are viscously adjusted using lighter cutting cutters and are supplied as fuel. The composition of the percentage of hydrocarbons formed gives a good calorific value to the fuel and the amount of metals present does not cause problems in consumer systems.

  • Specifications
  • 380280
    0/990/97Density @ 15 ° C (max) kg /L
    380280Viscosity kinematic @ 50 ° C (max) mm2/s
    3224Pour point max
    6565Flash point (min) ° C
    3.53.5SulphurTotal  max % mass
    2015Carbon Residue Conradson (max) % mass
    0.150.15Ash (max) % mass
    1.01.0Water & sediment (max) % vol
    41.741.7Colorific value higher (min) MJ/kg

  • Application
  • As a fuel in industries and power plants in the combustion system of which medium furnace oil has been proposed.

    Kian Group International Company is the largest supplier and exporter of petroleum products in Turkey, which with the cooperation of its representative in Iran, Kian Petroleum Company, is able to supply various oil, mineral and steel products directly from the doors of Iranian factories.

    What are the effects of fuel oil entering the environment?

    As mentioned, fuel oil or mazut is used to heat boilers in thermal power plants, but the entry of fuel oil and other furnace oils into the environment has different effects. Furnace oils, such as fuel oil, are composed of different chemicals and each is a different mixture. is included in. When these materials reach the soil or surface water, some of them evaporate and others will dissolve due to the leakage of their storage tanks in water and soil.

    Evaporated chemicals can be broken down into other compounds by sunlight. This also happens due to the activities of fungi and bacteria in water or soil. These chemicals, which are present in soil and other environments, can remain in the environment for more than a decade. Benzene, toluene and xylene are among these toxic compounds.

    Today, we are exposed to petroleum products in a variety of ways, including fuel oil or mazut. The most likely case is when kerosene is used to heat homes, which has been very common in the past. In addition, kerosene and other petroleum compounds are used as solvents and cleaners. Therefore, if these substances are stored at home and evaporate, the possibility of their contact with the skin is very high. In addition, the presence of thermal power plants near cities and the use of fuel oil in them will expose humans to compounds resulting from incomplete combustion of these products.

    Fuel oil and other fuels enter the body when you breathe them in the air or when you consume contaminated water and food, as well as when the skin comes in contact with these substances. Also, if your workplace or residence is close to factories and power plants that use this fuel, fuel oil and other fuels will enter the body.

    Effects of fuel oil use on health

    Combustion of sulfur-containing fossil fuels, such as fuel oil, releases compounds called Sox, most of which are SO2. SO2 is a toxic gas that is harmful to health. This gas weighs more than air, and when its concentration in the air reaches more than 500ppb, it will have a foul odor that will be lethal at this level.

    At lower concentrations, the gas causes chest pain, respiratory problems, red eyes, and an increased risk of heart and respiratory disease. In general, the usual concentration of this gas in the atmosphere is less than 10ppb, which at this concentration will not have a detrimental effect on health.

    The second effect of burning fuel oil and other sulfur fuels is the formation of sulfates and nitrates in the form of aerosols or very fine particles in the air, which cause “particulate matter” (Particulate Matter) in the air. These particulate matter increase the risk of asthma and heart and respiratory attacks by exacerbating air pollution.

    The third effect of burning fuel oil goes beyond its source of emission, in which case sulfur oxides are converted to acid due to the reaction in the atmosphere and the water-soluble phase. These acidic aerosols will turn into acid rain, snow and fog under special weather conditions. When air pollution is not caused by human activities, the pH of acid rain is about 5.5, which is due to the presence of carbonic acid due to the reaction of water vapor with carbon dioxide.

    These acid rainfalls have other destructive effects, including the dissolution of heavy metals in acid rain, and soils will no longer be able to hold tree roots. As a result, the risk of flooding increases with soil erosion and loss of vegetation.

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