What is liquefied petroleum gas?
Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) is the two hydrocarbon gases of butane and propane, or a combination thereof, that are kept in a liquid state. Usually small amounts of compounds such as propylene and butylene are also present in liquefied petroleum gas. LPG is mostly used for heating applications and as a fuel for vehicles. It is also used in the manufacture of sprays and as a cooling gas in refrigeration appliances such as refrigerators and freezers.
LPG is a by-product of natural gas refining and crude oil refining. The calorific value of liquefied petroleum gas is 46.1 megajoules / kg, which is higher than gasoline and fuel oil and produces higher energy in equal weight, but its calorific value is less in equal volume because it is a gas and has a lower density. Each liter of liquefied petroleum gas weighs 500 to 580 grams and each liter of gasoline weighs 710 to 770 grams. This gas turns into a liquid at a temperature of 21 degrees Celsius at a maximum pressure of 8 kg per square centimeter; And at the time of production, it has no color, odor or even taste, for added safety, sulfur compounds called mercaptan (which includes ethyl mercaptan and methyl mercaptan) are added to it.
LPG – Liquefied petroleum gas or liquefied petroleum gas (LP), composed of propane and butane, are flammable hydrocarbon gases used for heating, cooking and LPG vehicles.
Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is commonly referred to as LPG. LPG is a mixture of flammable hydrocarbon gases that includes propane, butane, isobutane and a mixture of three LPG gases. LPG is commonly used for home heating gases, cooking, hot water and automatic gas – fuel for cars and LPG vehicles.
Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is a combination of two hydrocarbons, three carbon (propane) and four carbon (normal and isobutane) in different proportions. Liquefied natural gas is considered as one of the main and valuable products of crude oil and rich gas refineries. This valuable hydrocarbon product has various applications, including as a fuel for domestic, commercial and industrial use, transportation, and also as a feed for the petrochemical industry in steam crackers.
Kian Group International Company is the largest supplier and exporter of petroleum products in Turkey, which with the cooperation of its representative in Iran, Kian Petroleum Company, is able to supply various oil, mineral and steel products directly from the doors of Iranian factories.
Home use and small industries LPG gas
Most people call LPG liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) sold in Iran in 50 kg, 11 kg (home cylinder), 5 kg (large picnic) and 2 kg (medium picnic) and 1 kg (small picnic) cylinders in Iran. (Before cities became natural gas piping, the main use of homes was for stoves, and in times of power outages for lighting, it was cylindrical liquefied petroleum gas, which is less commonly used in homes after natural gas network piping for every home.
In small industries where the industrial consumer can not afford to install large gas tanks or does not have the place to install these tanks, he uses 50 kg cylinders that are portable and connect it to the building’s gas pipeline outside the building.
Industrial uses of LPG
For industrial use, LPG is used in larger tanks installed at the industrial production site. These tanks are filled by liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) trucks directly from refineries or liquefied natural gas distribution companies.
Standard capacities of industrial liquefied gas tanks
Reservoirs are divided into the following capacities as standard according to the size of its water capacity (the amount of water in which it is placed).
125 gallons, 250 gallons, 500 gallons, 1,000 gallons, 1,500 gallons, 2,000 gallons, 3,000 gallons, 6,565 gallons, 9,800 gallons, 12,000 gallons, 20,000 gallons, 30,000 gallons
These tanks, except for 125 and 250 gallons, are all cylindrical and all include the body of the tank and two lenses for its head; And in tanks of 9800 gallons and above, there are manhole valves for it.
Uses of LPG
This gas is used in many places where it is not possible to use other sources of fuel because it is easily transportable.
- Homes for stoves and heating appliances
- Factories for fueling furnaces and burners (and in some for secondary fuel)
- Industrial and commercial kitchens
- IGNITION Gas turbines in combined cycle power plants
- Second fuel for cars
LPG consumption in the car
Today, in many developed countries of the world, including Turkey, South Korea, Russia, Italy, Poland, Britain and the United States, liquefied petroleum gas is used as car fuel, which is called autogas.
In Turkey, for example, 3.3 million tons of autogas is consumed annually in 4.5 million cars, and in South Korea, 3.1 million tons of autogas is consumed annually in 2.1 million cars. This fuel is known as clean fuel in Europe. 28 million tons of autogas is consumed annually in the world.
Is LPG a dangerous and unsafe fuel?
Many officials in Iran refer to this fuel as an unsafe and dangerous fuel. But if the standards related to the tank and its refueling are observed, according to the research that has been done in this field, this fuel can be safer than gasoline and diesel.
There are three main factors involved in LPG safety:
- Tank pressure
- Explosion and flammability limits
- Safe dual combustion in factory or in standard workshops
LPG status in terms of environmental pollution
In refinery products, sulfur remains with heavy materials, and because liquefied petroleum gas is one of the light products leaving the distillery of refineries, the amount of sulfur in it is much less than gasoline and diesel, and of course this small amount in separate units called refinery units.
It is completely separable. So if we use this fuel as an alternative fuel in cars, we can also solve many pollution problems in metropolises. Maybe that’s why LPG is known as clean fuel in Europe. The UK has used LPG extensively in its bus fleet, and the US has recently switched from LPG to diesel. The emissions of SO2 and CO from liquefied petroleum gas are about 40 to 60 percent lower than those of gasoline. Pollutants (PM) and produced by burning liquefied petroleum gas compared to gasoline are reduced by 52% and 21%, respectively. The amount produced also decreases by 21% compared to diesel.
LPG has two sources : approximately 60% is recovered during the extraction of natural gas and oil from the ground, and the remaining 40% is produced during the refining of crude oil.